In this module, there are two related discussions about life expectancy and the need to think ahead and plan ahead. Average life expectancy in the US is approximately 78 years and it is continuing to rise. Many demographers anticipate that it will top out around 88 years for females and 82 years for males. Some researchers believe that the average life expectancy could reach 100 in the next few decades with 110 and 120 possible with revolutionary advances in health and medicine (Weiss & Lonnquist, 2012).
As you work through this discussion, think about the aging population in aggregate form moving through this latter phase of life.
Before you begin, be sure to complete the readings and all learning activities. Then, complete Discussion 1 first followed by Discussion 2. It is important to complete the activities in that order.
Interview an individual over the age of 65. Follow the Life Expectancy and Social Planning Interview Script Be sure to stay ‘on-script’ so that responses are fairly standardized and able to be reviewed for patterns and trends. The best way to do this is to print out the script and explain that you will read the introduction and questions to be sure directions are clear and each health care area is addressed. After you complete the interview, be sure to summarize your interview and post it in M3D1.
After you have conducted your interview, summarize you’re the answers you received to each of the interview questions.
Then, read through the interview summaries that other students have posted and respond based on the following: the similarities and differences between the individual you interviewed and the individual interviewed by your classmate.
The Script: Thank you for agreeing to talk to me today about aging over the years. To begin, I would like you to think about your life as it was twenty to twenty-five years ago and then compare it to your life today. I will ask you to share your personal experience and thoughts about changes in society related to health and health care. I may need to take a few notes while we talk. When we are finished, I will compile all information for a discussion we are having in our medical sociology class. The information will be shared as group data, only; I will not disclose your name or link any information to you, personally. If for any reason you prefer not to answer a question, it is quite fine. Do you have any questions or concerns before we start?
• How has your health changed over the last twenty to twenty-five years?
• How has access to health care changed? By that, I mean, what were your healthcare needs twenty years ago and how did you meet them; and, what are your health care needs today and how do you meet them?
• Who have you received healthcare from over the years—physicians, nurse practitioners, folk healers, others?
• Do you have a Living Will, Advance Health Care Directive, or a Health Care Proxy? What factors or conditions contributed to the decision about having or not having this document?
• What about medications? Have they changed over time?
• Has your health insurance coverage changed? If so, in what way?
• Is there anyone, family or friend who will provide care if you need it?
• Do you have long-term health care insurance that covers home-care, assisted living, or skilled nursing care? If so, when did you get it? What factors or circumstances contributed to the decision to have or not have long-term care health insurance?
• How about the disclosure of health information? By that I mean, what you have experienced about disclosing or not-disclosing medical information. Has it changed over the years? If so, how has it changed and what do you think is driving the change?
• Are you using any resources within your community, such as a senior center? Why/why not? Do you think you will in the future?
LINEAR PROGRAMMING FORMULATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
The Electrocomp Corporation
manufactures two electrical products: air conditioners and large fans. The
assembly process for each is similar in that both require a certain amount of
wiring and drilling. Each air conditioner takes 3 hours of wiring and 2 hours
of drilling. Each fan must go through 2 hours of wiring and 1 hour of drilling.
During the next production period, 240 hours of wiring time are available and
up to 140 hours of drilling time maybe used. Each air conditioner sold yields a
profit of $25. Each fan assembled may be sold for a $15 profit. Formulate and
solve this LP production mix situation to find the best combination of air
conditioners and fans that yields the highest profit. Use the corner point
Electrocomp’s management realizes that
it forgot to include two critical constraints (see Problem 7-14). In
particular, management decides that to ensure an adequate supply of air
conditioners for a contract, at least 20 air conditioners should be
manufactured. Because Electrocomp incurred an oversupply of fans in the preceding
period, management also insists that no more than 80 fans be produced during
this production period. Resolve this product mix problem to find the new
A candidate for mayor in a small town
has allocated $40,000 for last-minute advertising in the days preceding the
election. Two types of ads will be used: radio and television. Each radio ad
costs $200 and reaches an estimated 3,000 people. Each television ad costs $500
and reaches an estimated 7,000 people. In planning the advertising campaign,
the campaign manager would like to reach as many people as possible, but she
has stipulated that at least 10 ads of each type must be used. Also, the number
of radio ads must be at least as great as the number of television ads. How
many ads of each type should be used? How many people will this reach?
The Outdoor Furniture Corporation
manufactures two products, benches and picnic tables, for use in yards and
parks. The firm has two main resources: its carpenters (labor force) and a
supply of redwood for use in the furniture. During the next production cycle,
1,200 hours of labor are available under a union agreement. The firm also has a
stock of 3500 feet of good-quality redwood. Each bench that Outdoor Furniture
produces requires 4 labor hours and 10 feet of redwood; each picnic table takes
6 labor hours and 35 feet of redwood. Completed benches will yield a profit of
$9 each, and tables will result in a profit of $20 each. How many benches and
tables should Outdoor Furniture produce to obtain the largest possible profit?
Use the graphical LP approach.
The dean of the Western College of
Business must plan the school’s course offerings for the fall semester. Student
demands make it necessary to offer at least 30 undergraduate and 20 graduate
courses in the term. Faculty contracts also dictate that at least 60 courses be
offered in total. Each undergraduate course taught costs the college an average
of $2,500 in faculty wages, and each graduate course costs $3,000. How many
undergraduate and graduate courses should be taught in the fall so that total
faculty salaries are kept to a minimum?
MSA Computer Corporation manufactures
two models of minicomputers, the Alpha 4 and the Beta 5. The firm employs five
technicians, working 160 hours each per month, on its assembly line. Management
insists that full employment (i.e., all 160 hours of time) be maintained for
each worker during next month’s operations. It requires 20 labor hours to assemble
each Alpha 4 computer and 25 labor hours to assemble each Beta 5 model. MSA
wants to see at least 10 Alpha 4s and at least 15 Beta 5s produced during the
production period. Alpha 4s generate $1,200 profit per unit, and Beta 5s yield
$1,800 each. Determine the most profitable number of each model of minicomputer
to produce during the coming month.
A winner of the Texas Lotto has
decided to invest $50,000 per year in the stock market. Under consideration are
stocks for a petrochemical firm and a public utility. Although a long-range
goal is to get the highest possible return, some consideration is given to the
risk involved with the stocks. A risk index on a scale of 1–10 (with 10 being
the most risky) is assigned to each of the two stocks. The total risk of the
portfolio is found by multiplying the risk of each stock by the dollars
invested in that stock. The following table provides a summary of the return
The investor would like to maximize the
return on the investment, but the average risk index of the investment should
not be higher than 6. How much should be invested in each stock? What is the
average risk for this investment? What is the estimated return for this
Referring to the Texas Lotto situation
in Problem 7-20, suppose the investor has changed his attitude about the
investment and wishes to give greater emphasis to the risk of the investment.
Now the investor wishes to minimize the risk of the investment as long as a
return of at least 8% is generated. Formulate this as an LP problem and find
the optimal solution. How much should be invested in each stock? What is the
average risk for this investment? What is the estimated return for this
7-24 The stock brokerage firm of Blank,
Leibowitz, and Weinberger has analyzed and recommended two stocks to an
investors’ club of college professors. The professors were interested in
factors such as short term growth, intermediate growth, and dividend rates.
These data on each stock are as follows:
Trimex Insulation Company
Short term growth potential, per dollar
Intermediate growth potential (over next
three years), per dollar invested
Dividend rate potential
Each member of the club has an investment
goal of (1) an appreciation of no less than $720 in the short term, (2) an
appreciation of at least $5,000 in the next three years, and (3) a dividend
income of at least $200 per year. What is the smallest investment that a
professor can make to meet these three goals?
Woofer Pet Foods produces a
low-calorie dog food for overweight dogs. This product is made from beef
products and grain. Each pound of beef costs $0.90, and each pound of grain
costs $0.60. A pound of the dog food must contain at least 9 units of Vitamin 1
and 10 units of Vitamin 2. A pound of beef contains 10 units of Vitamin 1 and
12 units of Vitamin 2. A pound of grain contains 6 units of Vitamin 1 and 9
units of Vitamin 2. Formulate this as an LP problem to minimize the cost of the
dog food. How many pounds of beef and grain should be included in each pound of
dog food? What is the cost and vitamin content of the final product?
TO SELECT PROBLEMS FROM CHAPTER 8
(Production problem) Winkler
Furniture manufactures two different types of china cabinets: a French
Provincial model and a Danish Modern model. Each cabinet produced must go
through three departments: carpentry, painting, and finishing. The table below contains
all relevant information concerning production times per cabinet produced and
production capacities for each operation per day, along with net revenue per
unit produced. The firm has a contract with an Indiana distributor to produce a minimum of
300 of each cabinet per week (or 60 cabinets per day). Owner Bob Winkler would
like to determine a product mix to maximize his daily revenue.
(a) Formulate as an LP problem.
(b) Solve using an LP software program or
Net Revenue per Cabinet ($)
(Investment decision problem) The
Heinlein and Krarnpf Brokerage firm has just been instructed by one of its
clients to invest $250,000 for her money obtained recently through the sale of
land holdings in Ohio. The client has a good deal of trust in the investment
house, but she also has her own ideas about the distribution of the funds being
invested. In particular, she requests that the firm select whatever stocks and
bonds they believe are well rated, but within the following guidelines:
(a) Municipal bonds should constitute at least 20%
of the investment.
(b) At least 40%
of the funds should be placed in a combination of electronic firms, aerospace
firms, and drug manufacturers.
(c) No more than
50% of the amount invested in municipal bonds should be placed in a high-risk,
high-yield nursing home stock.
Subject to these restraints, the client’s
goal is to maximize projected return on investments. The analysts at Heinlein
and Krampf, aware of these guidelines, prepare a list of high-quality stocks
and bonds and their corresponding rates of return.
Projected Rate of Return (%)
Angeles municipal bonds
Thompson Electronics, Inc.
United Aerospace Corp.
Happy Days Nursing Homes
(a) Formulate this portfolio selection
problem using LP. (b) Solve this problem.
(Restaurant work scheduling
problem). The famous Y. S. Chang Restaurant is open 24 hours a day. Waiters and
busboys report for duty at 3AM., 7 AM., 11 AM., 3 P.M., 7 P.M., or 11 P.M., and
each works an 8-hour shift. The following table shows the minimum number of
workers needed during the six periods into which the day is divided. Chang’s
scheduling problem is to determine how many waiters and busboys should report
for work at the start of each time period to minimize the total staff required
for one day’s operation. (Hint: Let Xi equal the
number of waiters and busboys beginning work in time period i, where i = 1,
of Waiters and Busboys Required
(Animal feed mix problem) The
Battery Park Stable feeds and houses the horses used to pull tourist-filled
carriages through the streets of Charleston’s
historic waterfront area. The stable owner, an ex-racehorse trainer, recognizes
the need to set a nutritional diet for the horses in his care. At the same
time, he would like to keep the overall daily cost of feed to a minimum.
mixes available for the horses’ diet are an oat product, a highly enriched
grain, and a mineral product. Each of these mixes contains a certain amount of
five ingredients needed daily to keep the average horse healthy. The table
below shows these minimum requirements, units of each ingredient per pound of
feed mix, and costs for the three mixes.
In addition, the stable owner is aware
that an overfed horse is a sluggish worker. Consequently, he determines that 6
pounds of feed per day are the most that any horse needs to function properly.
Formulate this problem and solve for the optimal daily mix of the three feeds.