December 3, 2019

What added value does each bring to their organizations? What conditions and organizational contingencies influence whether a transactional or transformational leadership style would be most effective?

Required Reading Journal Articles and Websites: Journal articles can be found in the TUI Online Library. Book chapters are located in the same library, but you must click on “Additional Library Resources” and then search the eBook Academic Collection (EBSCO) Carless, S. A., Wearing, A. J., & Mann, L. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership.Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 389–405. Charismatic leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm Ivey, G. W., & Kline, T. B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246–262. Kaifi, B. A., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2010). Transformational leadership of Afghans and Americans. Journal of Service Science and Management, 3(1), 150–159. Riggio, R. E. (2012, October 7). What is charisma and charismatic leadership? Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/201210/what-is-charisma-and-charismatic-leadership Sandber, Y., & Moreman, C. M. (2011). Common threads among different forms of charismatic leadership. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(9). Baker, J., & Cangemi, J. (2016). Why are there so few women CEOs and senior leaders in corporate america? Organization Development Journal, 34(2), 31-43. Transactional leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm Transformational leadership. (2016). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm Traywick, T. (2008). Reagan’s Transformational Leadership. YouTube Video. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puB0Bnt5xfY&feature=related Optional Readings and References Bass, B. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision.Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31. Farag, A. A., McGuinness, S. T., & Anthony, M. K. (2009). Nurses’ perception of their manager’s leadership style and unit climate: Are there generational differences. Journal of Nursing Management, 26, 26-24. Fayol’s 14 principles of management. (1998, Mar 22). New Straits Times Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Odumeru, J. A., & Ifeanyi, G. O. (2013). Transformational vs. transactional leadership theories: Evidence in literature. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(2), 355–361. Retrieved from http://irmbrjournal.com/papers/1371451049.pdf Yukl, G. (2014). Leadership in organizations (8th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Background We are all familiar with the concepts of transformational and transactional leadership, terms which were coined by James MacGregor Burns in his classic Leadership, which was published in 1978. In this assignment, we will analyze two leaders who typify these two types of leadership. Required Reading Refer to the Background readings on transformational and transactional leadership for this module. Case Assignment Drawing on the material in the background readings and doing additional research, please prepare a 5- to 6-page paper (not including the cover and reference pages) in which you: Analyze the key characteristics of transformational and transactional leadership and apply them to two leaders of your choice. Keys to the Assignment The key aspects of this assignment that, at a mimimum, should be covered in your paper, include: Select two leaders (from the U.S. or international) who you consider to be examples of transactional and transformational leadership. Conduct independent research on these individuals and create a profile that addresses the following: What makes one leader transactional and the other transformational? What added value does each bring to their organizations? What conditions and organizational contingencies influence whether a transactional or transformational leadership style would be most effective? Considering your answer above, compare the effectiveness of both leaders you profiled in their given environments. Was their leadership style appropriate? Assignment Expectations Your paper will be evaluated using the following five criteria: Assignment-Driven Criteria (Precision and Breadth): Does the paper fully address all Keys to the Assignment? Are the concepts behind the Keys to the Assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements? Critical Thinking (Critical Thinking and Depth): Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis? Business Writing (Clarity and Organization): Is the paper well written (clear, developed logically, and well organized)? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are section headings included in all papers? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding to the Keys to the Assignment, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations? Effective Use of Information (Information Literacy and References): Does the paper demonstrate that the student has read, understood, and can apply the background materials for the module? If required, has the student demonstrated effective research, as evidenced by the student’s use of relevant and quality sources? Do additional sources used in the paper provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper? Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing by inclusion of proper end references and in-text citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all end references been included within the body of the paper as in-text citations? Tips and Suggestions Please note the following tips and suggestions: Include a cover page and reference page, in addition to the 5-6 pages of analysis described above. Include headings for all papers greater than 2 pages (basically all papers). Cite and reference all sources that you use in your work, including those that you paraphrase but do not quote. This means include citations and quotation marks for direct quotes of more than 5 words, and citations for that information which you have “borrowed” or paraphrased from other sources. Submit your analysis by the end of this module. References Pounder, J. (2008). Transformational leadership: Practicing what we teach in the Management classroom. Journal of Education for Business, 84 (1), pp. 2-6.
December 3, 2019

Determine what qualitative research design was used in your selected article and evaluate whether it was the best choice.

For the past 2 weeks, you have focused on the features and considerations of quantitative research designs. However, quantitative designs are not appropriate for all research questions. Perhaps you are concerned with how patients react when confronted with negative test results, or you wish to study how views on a certain health topic change over time. In each of these cases, the emphasis is more on understanding the thinking and experiences of an individual or group than on numerical measurements. For these types of questions, a qualitative or mixed methods research design is the most appropriate. For this Discussion, you focus on the different types of qualitative research designs, when they are used, and why they are important. To prepare: Reflect on the comments made by Dr. Mauk in this week’s media presentation on the value of qualitative research in nursing. Locate the journal Qualitative Health Research in the Sage Premier database in the Walden Library. From this journal, select an article of interest to you that was published within the last 3 years. Review the information on different qualitative research designs in Chapter 21 of your course text. Determine what qualitative research design was used in your selected article and evaluate whether it was the best choice. Consider ethical issues involved in the study and how the researchers addressed them. Think about how using a quantitative design would have affected the type of data gathered. Post an APA citation for the article that you selected and provide a brief summary of the content and the qualitative research design used. Evaluate the appropriateness of the design, and explain how ethical issues in the study were addressed. Analyze how the study would have been different if a quantitative design had been used. Required Readings Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. Chapter 21, “Qualitative Research Design and Approaches” This chapter introduces qualitative research designs. It provides an overview of the different types of qualitative research and then describes each one in greater detail, outlining how and when they should be used. Houghton, C. E., Casey, D., Shaw, D., & Murphy, K. (2010). Ethical challenges in qualitative research: Examples from practice. Nurse Researcher, 18(1), 15–25. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article explores ethical challenges associated with qualitative research. Specifically, the authors examine the challenges of informed consent procedures, the researcher-participant relationship, risk-benefit ratio, confidentiality, and the dual role of the nurse-researcher. Pringle, J., Hendry, C., & McLafferty, E. (2011). Phenomenological approaches: Challenges and choices. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 7–18. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article examines the dilemmas faced by a researcher looking for appropriate methods and approaches for investigating the experiences of stroke survivors. In addition, this article reviews the challenges of using phenomenology as a research method. Ryan-Nicholls, K. D., & Will, C. I. (2009). Rigour in qualitative research: Mechanisms for control. Nurse Researcher, 16(3), 70–85. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. The authors of this article provide recommendations for improving the control mechanisms of methodological rigor in qualitative research methods. The text establishes the basis of criticism on the rigor of qualitative work, ways of demonstrating methodological rigor, and the definition of rigor. Smith, J., Bekker, H., & Cheater, F. (2011). Theoretical versus pragmatic design in qualitative research. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 39–51. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article assesses the benefits of using a generic qualitative approach to design studies for understanding user and caregiver perspectives. The authors assess these benefits in the context of a qualitative study that focused on parents’ experience of living with children with hydrocephalus. Walker, W. (2011). Hermeneutic inquiry: Insights into the process of interviewing. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 19–27. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article examines the process of interviewing from a research perspective. The authors supply personal and theoretical insights into using the research interview, along with a guide to the practicalities of interviewing. Williamson, K. M. (2009). Evidence-based practice: Critical appraisal of qualitative evidence. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 15(3), 202–207. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article highlights the importance of qualitative evidence to mental health clinicians. The author stresses that critically appraising evidence is crucial to the EBP process and provides guidelines for appraisal. Wuest, J. (2011). Are we there yet? Positioning qualitative research differently. Qualitative Health Research, 21(7), 875–883. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. This article focuses on the shifting role of qualitative research in the past two decades. The author discusses the merits and detriments of concrete distinctions, the hurdles of flexibility and convergence, and the need to develop a complete research toolbox for improving health.
December 3, 2019

Evaluate ethical and value-based frameworks that guide policy making.

1. Evaluate ethical and value-based frameworks that guide policy making.2. Incorporate ethical principles and standards to improve health outcomes. 3. Apply ethical analysis and clinical reasoning […]
December 3, 2019

Describe the main roles and behaviors of the entrepreneurs, managers, and employees your company might have.

Describe the main roles and behaviors of the entrepreneurs, managers, and employees your company might have.
Prev page
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567556855695570557155725573557455755576557755785579558055815582558355845585558655875588558955905591559255935594559555965597559855995600560156025603560456055606560756085609561056115612561356145615561656175618561956205621562256235624562556265627562856295630563156325633563456355636563756385639564056415642564356445645564656475648564956505651565256535654565556565657565856595660566156625663566456655666566756685669567056715672567356745675567656775678567956805681568256835684568556865687568856895690569156925693569456955696569756985699570057015702570357045705570657075708570957105711571257135714571557165717571857195720572157225723572457255726572757285729573057315732573357345735573657375738573957405741574257435744574557465747574857495750575157525753575457555756575757585759576057615762576357645765576657675768576957705771577257735774577557765777577857795780578157825783578457855786578757885789579057915792579357945795579657975798579958005801580258035804580558065807580858095810581158125813581458155816581758185819582058215822582358245825582658275828582958305831583258335834583558365837583858395840584158425843584458455846584758485849585058515852585358545855585658575858585958605861586258635864586558665867586858695870587158725873587458755876587758785879588058815882588358845885588658875888588958905891589258935894589558965897589858995900590159025903590459055906590759085909591059115912591359145915591659175918591959205921592259235924592559265927592859295930593159325933593459355936593759385939594059415942594359445945594659475948594959505951595259535954595559565957595859595960596159625963596459655966596759685969597059715972597359745975597659775978597959805981598259835984598559865987598859895990599159925993599459955996599759985999600060016002600360046005600660076008600960106011601260136014601560166017601860196020602160226023602460256026602760286029603060316032603360346035603660376038603960406041604260436044604560466047604860496050605160526053605460556056605760586059606060616062606360646065606660676068606960706071607260736074607560766077607860796080608160826083608460856086608760886089609060916092609360946095609660976098609961006101610261036104610561066107610861096110611161126113611461156116611761186119612061216122612361246125612661276128612961306131613261336134613561366137613861396140614161426143614461456146614761486149615061516152615361546155615661576158615961606161616261636164616561666167616861696170617161726173617461756176617761786179618061816182618361846185618661876188618961906191619261936194619561966197619861996200620162026203620462056206620762086209621062116212621362146215621662176218621962206221622262236224622562266227622862296230623162326233623462356236623762386239624062416242624362446245624662476248624962506251625262536254625562566257625862596260626162626263626462656266626762686269627062716272627362746275627662776278627962806281628262836284628562866287628862896290629162926293629462956296629762986299630063016302630363046305630663076308630963106311631263136314631563166317631863196320632163226323632463256326632763286329633063316332633363346335633663376338633963406341634263436344634563466347634863496350635163526353635463556356635763586359636063616362636363646365636663676368636963706371637263736374637563766377637863796380638163826383638463856386638763886389639063916392639363946395639663976398639964006401640264036404640564066407640864096410641164126413641464156416641764186419642064216422642364246425642664276428642964306431643264336434643564366437643864396440644164426443644464456446644764486449645064516452645364546455645664576458645964606461646264636464646564666467646864696470647164726473647464756476647764786479648064816482648364846485648664876488648964906491649264936494649564966497649864996500650165026503650465056506650765086509651065116512651365146515651665176518651965206521652265236524652565266527652865296530653165326533653465356536653765386539654065416542654365446545654665476548654965506551655265536554655565566557655865596560656165626563656465656566656765686569657065716572657365746575657665776578657965806581658265836584658565866587658865896590659165926593659465956596659765986599660066016602660366046605660666076608660966106611661266136614661566166617661866196620662166226623662466256626662766286629663066316632663366346635663666376638663966406641664266436644664566466647664866496650665166526653665466556656665766586659666066616662666366646665666666676668666966706671667266736674667566766677667866796680668166826683668466856686668766886689669066916692669366946695669666976698669967006701670267036704670567066707670867096710671167126713671467156716671767186719672067216722672367246725672667276728672967306731673267336734673567366737673867396740674167426743674467456746674767486749675067516752675367546755675667576758675967606761676267636764676567666767676867696770677167726773677467756776677767786779678067816782678367846785678667876788678967906791679267936794679567966797679867996800680168026803680468056806680768086809681068116812681368146815681668176818681968206821682268236824682568266827682868296830683168326833683468356836683768386839684068416842684368446845684668476848684968506851685268536854685568566857685868596860686168626863686468656866686768686869687068716872687368746875687668776878687968806881688268836884688568866887688868896890689168926893689468956896689768986899690069016902690369046905690669076908690969106911691269136914691569166917691869196920692169226923692469256926692769286929693069316932693369346935693669376938693969406941694269436944694569466947694869496950695169526953695469556956695769586959696069616962696369646965696669676968696969706971697269736974697569766977697869796980698169826983698469856986698769886989699069916992699369946995699669976998699970007001700270037004700570067007700870097010701170127013701470157016701770187019702070217022702370247025702670277028702970307031703270337034703570367037703870397040704170427043704470457046704770487049705070517052705370547055705670577058705970607061706270637064706570667067706870697070707170727073707470757076707770787079708070817082708370847085708670877088708970907091709270937094709570967097709870997100710171027103710471057106710771087109711071117112711371147115711671177118711971207121712271237124712571267127712871297130713171327133713471357136713771387139714071417142714371447145714671477148714971507151715271537154715571567157715871597160716171627163716471657166716771687169717071717172717371747175717671777178717971807181718271837184718571867187718871897190719171927193719471957196719771987199720072017202720372047205720672077208720972107211721272137214721572167217721872197220722172227223722472257226722772287229723072317232723372347235723672377238723972407241724272437244724572467247724872497250725172527253725472557256725772587259726072617262726372647265726672677268726972707271727272737274727572767277727872797280728172827283728472857286728772887289729072917292729372947295729672977298729973007301730273037304730573067307730873097310731173127313731473157316731773187319732073217322732373247325732673277328732973307331733273337334733573367337733873397340734173427343734473457346734773487349735073517352735373547355735673577358735973607361736273637364736573667367736873697370737173727373737473757376737773787379738073817382738373847385738673877388738973907391739273937394739573967397739873997400740174027403740474057406740774087409741074117412741374147415741674177418741974207421742274237424742574267427742874297430743174327433743474357436743774387439744074417442744374447445744674477448744974507451745274537454745574567457745874597460746174627463746474657466746774687469747074717472747374747475747674777478747974807481748274837484748574867487748874897490749174927493749474957496749774987499750075017502750375047505750675077508750975107511751275137514751575167517751875197520752175227523752475257526752775287529753075317532753375347535753675377538753975407541754275437544754575467547754875497550755175527553755475557556755775587559756075617562756375647565756675677568756975707571757275737574757575767577757875797580758175827583758475857586758775887589759075917592759375947595759675977598759976007601760276037604760576067607760876097610761176127613761476157616761776187619762076217622762376247625762676277628762976307631763276337634763576367637763876397640764176427643764476457646764776487649765076517652765376547655765676577658765976607661766276637664766576667667766876697670767176727673767476757676767776787679768076817682768376847685768676877688768976907691769276937694769576967697769876997700770177027703770477057706770777087709771077117712771377147715771677177718771977207721772277237724772577267727772877297730773177327733773477357736773777387739774077417742774377447745774677477748774977507751775277537754775577567757775877597760776177627763776477657766776777687769777077717772777377747775777677777778777977807781778277837784778577867787778877897790779177927793779477957796779777987799780078017802780378047805780678077808780978107811781278137814781578167817781878197820782178227823782478257826782778287829783078317832783378347835783678377838783978407841784278437844784578467847784878497850785178527853785478557856785778587859786078617862786378647865786678677868786978707871787278737874787578767877787878797880788178827883788478857886788778887889789078917892789378947895789678977898789979007901790279037904790579067907790879097910791179127913791479157916791779187919792079217922792379247925792679277928792979307931793279337934793579367937793879397940794179427943794479457946794779487949795079517952795379547955795679577958795979607961796279637964796579667967796879697970797179727973797479757976797779787979798079817982798379847985798679877988798979907991799279937994799579967997799879998000800180028003800480058006800780088009801080118012801380148015801680178018801980208021802280238024802580268027802880298030803180328033803480358036803780388039804080418042804380448045804680478048804980508051805280538054805580568057805880598060806180628063806480658066806780688069807080718072807380748075807680778078807980808081808280838084808580868087808880898090809180928093809480958096809780988099810081018102810381048105810681078108810981108111811281138114811581168117811881198120812181228123812481258126812781288129813081318132813381348135813681378138813981408141814281438144814581468147814881498150815181528153815481558156815781588159816081618162816381648165816681678168816981708171817281738174817581768177817881798180818181828183818481858186818781888189819081918192819381948195819681978198819982008201820282038204820582068207820882098210821182128213821482158216821782188219822082218222822382248225822682278228822982308231823282338234823582368237823882398240824182428243824482458246824782488249825082518252825382548255825682578258825982608261826282638264826582668267826882698270827182728273827482758276827782788279828082818282828382848285828682878288828982908291829282938294829582968297829882998300830183028303830483058306830783088309831083118312831383148315831683178318831983208321832283238324832583268327832883298330833183328333833483358336833783388339834083418342834383448345834683478348834983508351835283538354835583568357835883598360836183628363836483658366836783688369837083718372837383748375837683778378837983808381838283838384838583868387838883898390839183928393839483958396839783988399840084018402840384048405840684078408840984108411841284138414841584168417841884198420842184228423842484258426842784288429843084318432843384348435843684378438843984408441844284438444844584468447844884498450845184528453845484558456845784588459846084618462846384648465846684678468846984708471847284738474847584768477847884798480848184828483848484858486848784888489849084918492849384948495849684978498849985008501850285038504850585068507850885098510851185128513851485158516851785188519852085218522852385248525852685278528852985308531853285338534853585368537853885398540854185428543854485458546854785488549855085518552855385548555855685578558855985608561856285638564856585668567856885698570857185728573857485758576857785788579858085818582858385848585858685878588858985908591859285938594859585968597859885998600860186028603860486058606860786088609861086118612861386148615861686178618861986208621862286238624862586268627862886298630863186328633863486358636863786388639864086418642864386448645864686478648864986508651865286538654865586568657865886598660866186628663866486658666866786688669867086718672867386748675867686778678867986808681868286838684868586868687868886898690869186928693869486958696869786988699870087018702870387048705870687078708870987108711871287138714871587168717871887198720872187228723872487258726872787288729873087318732873387348735873687378738873987408741874287438744874587468747874887498750875187528753875487558756875787588759876087618762876387648765876687678768876987708771877287738774877587768777877887798780878187828783878487858786878787888789879087918792879387948795879687978798879988008801880288038804880588068807880888098810881188128813881488158816881788188819882088218822882388248825882688278828882988308831883288338834883588368837883888398840884188428843884488458846884788488849885088518852885388548855885688578858885988608861886288638864886588668867886888698870887188728873887488758876887788788879888088818882888388848885888688878888888988908891889288938894889588968897889888998900890189028903890489058906890789088909891089118912891389148915891689178918891989208921892289238924892589268927892889298930893189328933893489358936893789388939894089418942894389448945894689478948894989508951895289538954895589568957895889598960896189628963896489658966896789688969897089718972897389748975897689778978897989808981898289838984898589868987898889898990899189928993899489958996899789988999900090019002900390049005900690079008900990109011901290139014901590169017901890199020902190229023902490259026902790289029903090319032903390349035903690379038903990409041904290439044904590469047904890499050905190529053905490559056905790589059906090619062906390649065906690679068906990709071907290739074907590769077907890799080908190829083908490859086908790889089909090919092909390949095909690979098909991009101910291039104910591069107910891099110911191129113911491159116911791189119912091219122912391249125912691279128912991309131913291339134913591369137913891399140914191429143914491459146914791489149915091519152915391549155915691579158915991609161916291639164916591669167916891699170917191729173917491759176917791789179918091819182918391849185918691879188918991909191919291939194919591969197919891999200920192029203920492059206920792089209921092119212921392149215921692179218921992209221922292239224922592269227922892299230923192329233923492359236923792389239924092419242924392449245924692479248924992509251925292539254925592569257925892599260926192629263926492659266926792689269927092719272927392749275927692779278927992809281928292839284928592869287928892899290929192929293929492959296929792989299930093019302930393049305930693079308930993109311931293139314931593169317931893199320932193229323932493259326932793289329933093319332933393349335933693379338933993409341934293439344934593469347934893499350935193529353935493559356935793589359936093619362936393649365936693679368936993709371937293739374937593769377937893799380938193829383938493859386938793889389939093919392939393949395939693979398939994009401940294039404940594069407940894099410941194129413941494159416941794189419942094219422942394249425942694279428942994309431943294339434943594369437943894399440944194429443944494459446944794489449945094519452945394549455945694579458945994609461946294639464946594669467946894699470947194729473947494759476947794789479948094819482948394849485948694879488948994909491949294939494949594969497949894999500950195029503950495059506950795089509951095119512951395149515951695179518951995209521952295239524952595269527952895299530953195329533953495359536953795389539954095419542954395449545954695479548954995509551955295539554955595569557955895599560956195629563956495659566956795689569957095719572957395749575957695779578957995809581958295839584958595869587958895899590959195929593959495959596959795989599960096019602960396049605960696079608960996109611961296139614961596169617961896199620962196229623962496259626962796289629963096319632963396349635963696379638963996409641964296439644964596469647964896499650965196529653965496559656965796589659966096619662966396649665966696679668966996709671967296739674967596769677967896799680968196829683968496859686968796889689969096919692969396949695969696979698969997009701970297039704970597069707970897099710971197129713971497159716971797189719972097219722972397249725972697279728972997309731973297339734973597369737973897399740974197429743974497459746974797489749975097519752975397549755975697579758975997609761976297639764976597669767976897699770977197729773977497759776977797789779978097819782978397849785978697879788978997909791979297939794979597969797979897999800980198029803980498059806980798089809981098119812981398149815981698179818981998209821982298239824982598269827982898299830983198329833983498359836983798389839984098419842984398449845984698479848984998509851985298539854985598569857985898599860986198629863986498659866986798689869987098719872987398749875987698779878987998809881988298839884988598869887988898899890989198929893989498959896989798989899990099019902990399049905990699079908990999109911991299139914991599169917991899199920992199229923992499259926992799289929993099319932993399349935993699379938993999409941994299439944994599469947994899499950995199529953995499559956995799589959996099619962996399649965996699679968996999709971997299739974997599769977997899799980998199829983998499859986998799889989999099919992999399949995999699979998999910000100011000210003100041000510006100071000810009100101001110012100131001410015100161001710018100191002010021100221002310024100251002610027100281002910030100311003210033100341003510036100371003810039100401004110042100431004410045100461004710048100491005010051100521005310054100551005610057100581005910060100611006210063100641006510066100671006810069100701007110072100731007410075100761007710078100791008010081100821008310084100851008610087100881008910090100911009210093100941009510096100971009810099101001010110102101031010410105101061010710108101091011010111101121011310114101151011610117101181011910120101211012210123101241012510126101271012810129101301013110132101331013410135101361013710138101391014010141101421014310144101451014610147101481014910150101511015210153101541015510156101571015810159101601016110162101631016410165101661016710168101691017010171101721017310174101751017610177101781017910180101811018210183101841018510186101871018810189101901019110192101931019410195101961019710198101991020010201102021020310204102051020610207102081020910210102111021210213102141021510216102171021810219102201022110222102231022410225102261022710228102291023010231102321023310234102351023610237102381023910240102411024210243102441024510246102471024810249102501025110252102531025410255102561025710258102591026010261102621026310264102651026610267102681026910270102711027210273102741027510276102771027810279102801028110282102831028410285102861028710288102891029010291102921029310294102951029610297102981029910300103011030210303103041030510306103071030810309103101031110312103131031410315103161031710318103191032010321103221032310324103251032610327103281032910330103311033210333103341033510336103371033810339103401034110342103431034410345103461034710348103491035010351103521035310354103551035610357103581035910360103611036210363103641036510366103671036810369103701037110372103731037410375103761037710378103791038010381103821038310384103851038610387103881038910390103911039210393103941039510396103971039810399104001040110402104031040410405104061040710408104091041010411104121041310414104151041610417104181041910420104211042210423104241042510426104271042810429104301043110432104331043410435104361043710438104391044010441104421044310444104451044610447104481044910450104511045210453104541045510456104571045810459104601046110462104631046410465104661046710468104691047010471104721047310474104751047610477104781047910480104811048210483104841048510486104871048810489104901049110492104931049410495104961049710498104991050010501105021050310504105051050610507105081050910510105111051210513105141051510516105171051810519105201052110522105231052410525105261052710528105291053010531105321053310534105351053610537105381053910540105411054210543105441054510546105471054810549105501055110552105531055410555105561055710558105591056010561105621056310564105651056610567105681056910570105711057210573105741057510576105771057810579105801058110582105831058410585105861058710588105891059010591105921059310594105951059610597105981059910600106011060210603106041060510606106071060810609106101061110612106131061410615106161061710618106191062010621106221062310624106251062610627106281062910630106311063210633106341063510636106371063810639106401064110642106431064410645106461064710648106491065010651106521065310654106551065610657106581065910660106611066210663106641066510666106671066810669106701067110672106731067410675106761067710678106791068010681106821068310684106851068610687106881068910690106911069210693106941069510696106971069810699107001070110702107031070410705107061070710708107091071010711107121071310714107151071610717107181071910720107211072210723107241072510726107271072810729107301073110732107331073410735107361073710738107391074010741107421074310744107451074610747107481074910750107511075210753107541075510756107571075810759107601076110762107631076410765107661076710768107691077010771107721077310774107751077610777107781077910780107811078210783107841078510786107871078810789107901079110792107931079410795107961079710798107991080010801108021080310804108051080610807108081080910810108111081210813108141081510816108171081810819108201082110822108231082410825108261082710828108291083010831108321083310834108351083610837108381083910840108411084210843108441084510846108471084810849108501085110852108531085410855108561085710858108591086010861108621086310864108651086610867108681086910870108711087210873108741087510876108771087810879108801088110882108831088410885108861088710888108891089010891108921089310894108951089610897108981089910900109011090210903109041090510906109071090810909109101091110912109131091410915109161091710918109191092010921109221092310924109251092610927109281092910930109311093210933109341093510936109371093810939109401094110942109431094410945109461094710948109491095010951109521095310954109551095610957109581095910960109611096210963109641096510966109671096810969109701097110972109731097410975109761097710978109791098010981109821098310984109851098610987109881098910990109911099210993109941099510996109971099810999110001100111002110031100411005110061100711008110091101011011110121101311014110151101611017110181101911020110211102211023110241102511026110271102811029110301103111032110331103411035110361103711038110391104011041110421104311044110451104611047110481104911050110511105211053110541105511056110571105811059110601106111062110631106411065110661106711068110691107011071110721107311074110751107611077110781107911080110811108211083110841108511086110871108811089110901109111092110931109411095110961109711098110991110011101111021110311104111051110611107111081110911110111111111211113111141111511116111171111811119111201112111122111231112411125111261112711128111291113011131111321113311134111351113611137111381113911140111411114211143111441114511146111471114811149111501115111152111531115411155111561115711158111591116011161111621116311164111651116611167111681116911170111711117211173111741117511176111771117811179111801118111182111831118411185111861118711188111891119011191111921119311194111951119611197111981119911200112011120211203112041120511206112071120811209112101121111212112131121411215