December 14, 2019

What are the ethical pros and cons of allowing individuals to live their lives of their own choosing even when it results in an increasing chronic illness burden to society?

Nursing – The imperative of human obesity: An ethical reflection Using the assigned readings, information from the literature, and the following article (Meetoo, D. (2010). The imperative of human obesity: An ethical reflection. British Journal of Nursing, 19(9), 563-568.) compose a response to the following: The author describes the role of global economic development and its influence on the increased incidence of chronic illness. Ethical pros and cons of “abolishing obesogenic environments to prevent pandemic chronic diseases” are offered. Respond to the following in your initial post and give support, reasoning, or evidence behind your position: Reflect on the recommendation to enact laws with the intent to decrease obesity rates and subsequent chronic illness. How does this compare to the legislation that addressed smoking rates and its attempt to decrease the incidence of smoking related chronic disease? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Is it realistic to consider that, left unchecked, obesity will overcome smoking as the leading cause of preventable death? What are the ethical pros and cons of allowing individuals to live their lives of their own choosing even when it results in an increasing chronic illness burden to society?
December 14, 2019

Select an even-numbered LP problem from the text, excluding 14, 20, 22, 36 (which are part of your homework assignment). Formulate a linear programming model for the problem you select.

Select an even-numbered LP problem from the text, excluding 14, 20, 22, 36 (which are part of your homework assignment). Formulate a linear programming model for the problem you select.

December 14, 2019

Write an essay on 4-white collar crime.

Write an essay on 4-white collar crime.

December 14, 2019

How would you characterize the magnitude of the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”?

Questions to Be Graded EXERCISE 26 Follow your instructor ’ s directions to submit your answers to the following questions for grading. Your instructor may ask you to write your answers below and submit them as a hard copy for grading. Alternatively, your instructor may ask you to use the space below for notes and submit your answers online at http://evolve.elsevier.com/Grove/Statistics/ under “Questions to Be Graded.” Name: _______________________________________________________ Class: _____________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS. 2. How would you characterize the skewness of the distribution in Question 1—positively skewed, negatively skewed, or approximately normal? Provide a rationale for your answer. 3. Compare the original skewness statistic and Shapiro-Wilk statistic with those of the smaller dataset ( n = 15) for the variable “Age at First Arrest.” How did the statistics change, and how would you explain these differences? 4. Plot the frequency distribution for “Years of Education” by hand or by using SPSS. 290 EXERCISE 26 • Determining the Normality of a Distribution Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5. How would you characterize the kurtosis of the distribution in Question 4—leptokurtic, mesokurtic, or platykurtic? Provide a rationale for your answer. 6. What is the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”? 7. What is the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”? 8. Using SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for “Number of Times Fired from Job.” What would you conclude from the results? 9. In the SPSS output table titled “Tests of Normality,” the Shapiro-Wilk statistic is reported along with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Why is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic inappropriate to report for these example data? 10. How would you explain the skewness statistic for a particular frequency distribution being low and the Shapiro-Wilk statistic still being signifi cant at p < 0.05? Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 291 Calculating Descriptive Statistics There are two major classes of statistics: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are computed to reveal characteristics of the sample data set and to describe study variables. Inferential statistics are computed to gain information about effects and associations in the population being studied. For some types of studies, descriptive statistics will be the only approach to analysis of the data. For other studies, descriptive statistics are the fi rst step in the data analysis process, to be followed by inferential statistics. For all studies that involve numerical data, descriptive statistics are crucial in understanding the fundamental properties of the variables being studied. Exercise 27 focuses only on descriptive statistics and will illustrate the most common descriptive statistics computed in nursing research and provide examples using actual clinical data from empirical publications. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY A measure of central tendency is a statistic that represents the center or middle of a frequency distribution. The three measures of central tendency commonly used in nursing research are the mode, median ( MD ), and mean ( X ). The mean is the arithmetic average of all of a variable ’ s values. The median is the exact middle value (or the average of the middle two values if there is an even number of observations). The mode is the most commonly occurring value or values (see Exercise 8 ). The following data have been collected from veterans with rheumatoid arthritis ( Tran, Hooker, Cipher, & Reimold, 2009 ). The values in Table 27-1 were extracted from a larger sample of veterans who had a history of biologic medication use (e.g., infl iximab [Remicade], etanercept [Enbrel]). Table 27-1 contains data collected from 10 veterans who had stopped taking biologic medications, and the variable represents the number of years that each veteran had taken the medication before stopping. Because the number of study subjects represented below is 10, the correct statistical notation to refl ect that number is: n 10 Note that the n is lowercase, because we are referring to a sample of veterans. If the data being presented represented the entire population of veterans, the correct notation is the uppercase N. Because most nursing research is conducted using samples, not populations, all formulas in the subsequent exercises will incorporate the sample notation, n. Mode The mode is the numerical value or score that occurs with the greatest frequency; it does not necessarily indicate the center of the data set. The data in Table 27-1 contain two EXERCISE 27
Prev page
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567556855695570557155725573557455755576557755785579558055815582558355845585558655875588558955905591559255935594559555965597559855995600560156025603560456055606560756085609561056115612561356145615561656175618561956205621562256235624562556265627562856295630563156325633563456355636563756385639564056415642564356445645564656475648564956505651565256535654565556565657565856595660566156625663566456655666566756685669567056715672567356745675567656775678567956805681568256835684568556865687568856895690569156925693569456955696569756985699570057015702570357045705570657075708570957105711571257135714571557165717571857195720572157225723572457255726572757285729573057315732573357345735573657375738573957405741574257435744574557465747574857495750575157525753575457555756575757585759576057615762576357645765576657675768576957705771577257735774577557765777577857795780578157825783578457855786578757885789579057915792579357945795579657975798579958005801580258035804580558065807580858095810581158125813581458155816581758185819582058215822582358245825582658275828582958305831583258335834583558365837583858395840584158425843584458455846584758485849585058515852585358545855585658575858585958605861586258635864586558665867586858695870587158725873587458755876587758785879588058815882588358845885588658875888588958905891589258935894589558965897589858995900590159025903590459055906590759085909591059115912591359145915591659175918591959205921592259235924592559265927592859295930593159325933593459355936593759385939594059415942594359445945594659475948594959505951595259535954595559565957595859595960596159625963596459655966596759685969597059715972597359745975597659775978597959805981598259835984598559865987598859895990599159925993599459955996599759985999600060016002600360046005600660076008600960106011601260136014601560166017601860196020602160226023602460256026602760286029603060316032603360346035603660376038603960406041604260436044604560466047604860496050605160526053605460556056605760586059606060616062606360646065606660676068606960706071607260736074607560766077607860796080608160826083608460856086608760886089609060916092609360946095609660976098609961006101610261036104610561066107610861096110611161126113611461156116611761186119612061216122612361246125612661276128612961306131613261336134613561366137613861396140614161426143614461456146614761486149615061516152615361546155615661576158615961606161616261636164616561666167616861696170617161726173617461756176617761786179618061816182618361846185618661876188618961906191619261936194619561966197619861996200620162026203620462056206620762086209621062116212621362146215621662176218621962206221622262236224622562266227622862296230623162326233623462356236623762386239624062416242624362446245624662476248624962506251625262536254625562566257625862596260626162626263626462656266626762686269627062716272627362746275627662776278627962806281628262836284628562866287628862896290629162926293629462956296629762986299630063016302630363046305630663076308630963106311631263136314631563166317631863196320632163226323632463256326632763286329633063316332633363346335633663376338633963406341634263436344634563466347634863496350635163526353635463556356635763586359636063616362636363646365636663676368636963706371637263736374637563766377637863796380638163826383638463856386638763886389639063916392639363946395639663976398639964006401640264036404640564066407640864096410641164126413641464156416641764186419642064216422642364246425642664276428642964306431643264336434643564366437643864396440644164426443644464456446644764486449645064516452645364546455645664576458645964606461646264636464646564666467646864696470647164726473647464756476647764786479648064816482648364846485648664876488648964906491649264936494649564966497649864996500650165026503650465056506650765086509651065116512651365146515651665176518651965206521652265236524652565266527652865296530653165326533653465356536653765386539654065416542654365446545654665476548654965506551655265536554655565566557655865596560656165626563656465656566656765686569657065716572657365746575657665776578657965806581658265836584658565866587658865896590659165926593659465956596659765986599660066016602660366046605660666076608660966106611661266136614661566166617661866196620662166226623662466256626662766286629663066316632663366346635663666376638663966406641664266436644664566466647664866496650665166526653665466556656665766586659666066616662666366646665666666676668666966706671667266736674667566766677667866796680668166826683668466856686668766886689669066916692669366946695669666976698669967006701670267036704670567066707670867096710671167126713671467156716671767186719672067216722672367246725672667276728672967306731673267336734673567366737673867396740674167426743674467456746674767486749675067516752675367546755675667576758675967606761676267636764676567666767676867696770677167726773677467756776677767786779678067816782678367846785678667876788678967906791679267936794679567966797679867996800680168026803680468056806680768086809681068116812681368146815681668176818681968206821682268236824682568266827682868296830683168326833683468356836683768386839684068416842684368446845684668476848684968506851685268536854685568566857685868596860686168626863686468656866686768686869687068716872687368746875687668776878687968806881688268836884688568866887688868896890689168926893689468956896689768986899690069016902690369046905690669076908690969106911691269136914691569166917691869196920692169226923692469256926692769286929693069316932693369346935693669376938693969406941694269436944694569466947694869496950695169526953695469556956695769586959696069616962696369646965696669676968696969706971697269736974697569766977697869796980698169826983698469856986698769886989699069916992699369946995699669976998699970007001700270037004700570067007700870097010701170127013701470157016701770187019702070217022702370247025702670277028702970307031703270337034703570367037703870397040704170427043704470457046704770487049705070517052705370547055705670577058705970607061706270637064706570667067706870697070707170727073707470757076707770787079708070817082708370847085708670877088708970907091709270937094709570967097709870997100710171027103710471057106710771087109711071117112711371147115711671177118711971207121712271237124712571267127712871297130713171327133713471357136713771387139714071417142714371447145714671477148714971507151715271537154715571567157715871597160716171627163716471657166716771687169717071717172717371747175717671777178717971807181718271837184718571867187718871897190719171927193719471957196719771987199720072017202720372047205720672077208720972107211721272137214721572167217721872197220722172227223722472257226722772287229723072317232723372347235723672377238723972407241724272437244724572467247724872497250725172527253725472557256725772587259726072617262726372647265726672677268726972707271727272737274727572767277727872797280728172827283728472857286728772887289729072917292729372947295729672977298729973007301730273037304730573067307730873097310731173127313731473157316731773187319732073217322732373247325732673277328732973307331733273337334733573367337733873397340734173427343734473457346734773487349735073517352735373547355735673577358735973607361736273637364736573667367736873697370737173727373737473757376737773787379738073817382738373847385738673877388738973907391739273937394739573967397739873997400740174027403740474057406740774087409741074117412741374147415741674177418741974207421742274237424742574267427742874297430743174327433743474357436743774387439744074417442744374447445744674477448744974507451745274537454745574567457745874597460746174627463746474657466746774687469747074717472747374747475747674777478747974807481748274837484748574867487748874897490749174927493749474957496749774987499750075017502750375047505750675077508750975107511751275137514751575167517751875197520752175227523752475257526752775287529753075317532753375347535753675377538753975407541754275437544754575467547754875497550755175527553755475557556755775587559756075617562756375647565756675677568756975707571757275737574757575767577757875797580758175827583758475857586758775887589759075917592759375947595759675977598759976007601760276037604760576067607760876097610761176127613761476157616761776187619762076217622762376247625762676277628762976307631763276337634763576367637763876397640764176427643764476457646764776487649765076517652765376547655765676577658765976607661766276637664766576667667766876697670767176727673767476757676767776787679768076817682768376847685768676877688768976907691769276937694769576967697769876997700770177027703770477057706770777087709771077117712771377147715771677177718771977207721772277237724772577267727772877297730773177327733773477357736773777387739774077417742774377447745774677477748774977507751775277537754775577567757775877597760776177627763776477657766776777687769777077717772777377747775777677777778777977807781778277837784778577867787778877897790779177927793779477957796779777987799780078017802780378047805780678077808780978107811781278137814781578167817781878197820782178227823782478257826782778287829783078317832783378347835783678377838783978407841784278437844784578467847784878497850785178527853785478557856785778587859786078617862786378647865786678677868786978707871787278737874787578767877787878797880788178827883788478857886788778887889789078917892789378947895789678977898789979007901790279037904790579067907790879097910791179127913791479157916791779187919792079217922792379247925792679277928792979307931793279337934793579367937793879397940794179427943794479457946794779487949795079517952795379547955795679577958795979607961796279637964796579667967796879697970797179727973797479757976797779787979798079817982798379847985798679877988798979907991799279937994799579967997799879998000800180028003800480058006800780088009801080118012801380148015801680178018801980208021802280238024802580268027802880298030803180328033803480358036803780388039804080418042804380448045804680478048804980508051805280538054805580568057805880598060806180628063806480658066806780688069807080718072807380748075807680778078807980808081808280838084808580868087808880898090809180928093809480958096809780988099810081018102810381048105810681078108810981108111811281138114811581168117811881198120812181228123812481258126812781288129813081318132813381348135813681378138813981408141814281438144814581468147814881498150815181528153815481558156815781588159816081618162816381648165816681678168816981708171817281738174817581768177817881798180818181828183818481858186818781888189819081918192819381948195819681978198819982008201820282038204820582068207820882098210821182128213821482158216821782188219822082218222822382248225822682278228822982308231823282338234823582368237823882398240824182428243824482458246824782488249825082518252825382548255825682578258825982608261826282638264826582668267826882698270827182728273827482758276827782788279828082818282828382848285828682878288828982908291829282938294829582968297829882998300830183028303830483058306830783088309831083118312831383148315831683178318831983208321832283238324832583268327832883298330833183328333833483358336833783388339834083418342834383448345834683478348834983508351835283538354835583568357835883598360836183628363836483658366836783688369837083718372837383748375837683778378837983808381838283838384838583868387838883898390839183928393839483958396839783988399840084018402840384048405840684078408840984108411841284138414841584168417841884198420842184228423842484258426842784288429843084318432843384348435843684378438843984408441844284438444844584468447844884498450845184528453845484558456845784588459846084618462846384648465846684678468846984708471847284738474847584768477847884798480848184828483848484858486848784888489849084918492849384948495849684978498849985008501850285038504850585068507850885098510851185128513851485158516851785188519852085218522852385248525852685278528852985308531853285338534853585368537853885398540854185428543854485458546854785488549855085518552855385548555855685578558855985608561856285638564856585668567856885698570857185728573857485758576857785788579858085818582858385848585858685878588858985908591859285938594859585968597859885998600860186028603860486058606860786088609861086118612861386148615861686178618861986208621862286238624862586268627862886298630863186328633863486358636863786388639864086418642864386448645864686478648864986508651865286538654865586568657865886598660866186628663866486658666866786688669867086718672867386748675867686778678867986808681868286838684868586868687868886898690869186928693869486958696869786988699870087018702870387048705870687078708870987108711871287138714871587168717871887198720872187228723872487258726872787288729873087318732873387348735873687378738873987408741874287438744874587468747874887498750875187528753875487558756875787588759876087618762876387648765876687678768876987708771877287738774877587768777877887798780878187828783878487858786878787888789879087918792879387948795879687978798879988008801880288038804880588068807880888098810881188128813881488158816881788188819882088218822882388248825882688278828882988308831883288338834883588368837883888398840884188428843884488458846884788488849885088518852885388548855885688578858885988608861886288638864886588668867886888698870887188728873887488758876887788788879888088818882888388848885888688878888888988908891889288938894889588968897889888998900890189028903890489058906890789088909891089118912891389148915891689178918891989208921892289238924892589268927892889298930893189328933893489358936893789388939894089418942894389448945894689478948894989508951895289538954895589568957895889598960896189628963896489658966896789688969897089718972897389748975897689778978897989808981898289838984898589868987898889898990899189928993899489958996899789988999900090019002900390049005900690079008900990109011901290139014901590169017901890199020902190229023902490259026902790289029903090319032903390349035903690379038903990409041904290439044904590469047904890499050905190529053905490559056905790589059906090619062906390649065906690679068906990709071907290739074907590769077907890799080908190829083908490859086908790889089909090919092909390949095909690979098909991009101910291039104910591069107910891099110911191129113911491159116911791189119912091219122912391249125912691279128912991309131913291339134913591369137913891399140914191429143914491459146914791489149915091519152915391549155915691579158915991609161916291639164916591669167916891699170917191729173917491759176917791789179918091819182918391849185918691879188918991909191919291939194919591969197919891999200920192029203920492059206920792089209921092119212921392149215921692179218921992209221922292239224922592269227922892299230923192329233923492359236923792389239924092419242924392449245924692479248924992509251925292539254925592569257925892599260926192629263926492659266926792689269927092719272927392749275927692779278927992809281928292839284928592869287928892899290929192929293929492959296929792989299930093019302930393049305930693079308930993109311931293139314931593169317931893199320932193229323932493259326932793289329933093319332933393349335933693379338933993409341934293439344934593469347934893499350935193529353935493559356935793589359936093619362936393649365936693679368936993709371937293739374937593769377937893799380938193829383938493859386938793889389939093919392939393949395939693979398939994009401940294039404940594069407940894099410941194129413941494159416941794189419942094219422942394249425942694279428942994309431943294339434943594369437943894399440944194429443944494459446944794489449945094519452945394549455945694579458945994609461946294639464946594669467946894699470947194729473947494759476947794789479948094819482948394849485948694879488948994909491949294939494949594969497949894999500950195029503950495059506950795089509951095119512951395149515951695179518951995209521952295239524952595269527952895299530953195329533953495359536953795389539954095419542954395449545954695479548954995509551955295539554955595569557955895599560956195629563956495659566956795689569957095719572957395749575957695779578957995809581958295839584958595869587958895899590959195929593959495959596959795989599960096019602960396049605960696079608960996109611961296139614961596169617961896199620962196229623962496259626962796289629963096319632963396349635963696379638963996409641964296439644964596469647964896499650965196529653965496559656965796589659966096619662966396649665966696679668966996709671967296739674967596769677967896799680968196829683968496859686968796889689969096919692969396949695969696979698969997009701970297039704970597069707970897099710971197129713971497159716971797189719972097219722972397249725972697279728972997309731973297339734973597369737973897399740974197429743974497459746974797489749975097519752975397549755975697579758975997609761976297639764976597669767976897699770977197729773977497759776977797789779978097819782978397849785978697879788978997909791979297939794979597969797979897999800980198029803980498059806980798089809981098119812981398149815981698179818981998209821982298239824982598269827982898299830983198329833983498359836983798389839984098419842984398449845984698479848984998509851985298539854985598569857985898599860986198629863986498659866986798689869987098719872987398749875987698779878987998809881988298839884988598869887988898899890989198929893989498959896989798989899990099019902990399049905990699079908990999109911991299139914991599169917991899199920992199229923992499259926992799289929993099319932993399349935993699379938993999409941994299439944994599469947994899499950995199529953995499559956995799589959996099619962996399649965996699679968996999709971997299739974997599769977997899799980998199829983998499859986998799889989999099919992999399949995999699979998999910000100011000210003100041000510006100071000810009100101001110012100131001410015100161001710018100191002010021100221002310024100251002610027100281002910030100311003210033100341003510036100371003810039100401004110042100431004410045100461004710048100491005010051100521005310054100551005610057100581005910060100611006210063100641006510066100671006810069100701007110072100731007410075100761007710078100791008010081100821008310084100851008610087100881008910090100911009210093100941009510096100971009810099101001010110102101031010410105101061010710108101091011010111101121011310114101151011610117101181011910120101211012210123101241012510126101271012810129101301013110132101331013410135101361013710138101391014010141101421014310144101451014610147101481014910150101511015210153101541015510156101571015810159101601016110162101631016410165101661016710168101691017010171101721017310174101751017610177101781017910180101811018210183101841018510186101871018810189101901019110192101931019410195101961019710198101991020010201102021020310204102051020610207102081020910210102111021210213102141021510216102171021810219102201022110222102231022410225102261022710228102291023010231102321023310234102351023610237102381023910240102411024210243102441024510246102471024810249102501025110252102531025410255102561025710258102591026010261102621026310264102651026610267102681026910270102711027210273102741027510276102771027810279102801028110282102831028410285102861028710288102891029010291102921029310294102951029610297102981029910300103011030210303103041030510306103071030810309103101031110312103131031410315103161031710318103191032010321103221032310324103251032610327103281032910330103311033210333103341033510336103371033810339103401034110342103431034410345103461034710348103491035010351103521035310354103551035610357103581035910360103611036210363103641036510366103671036810369103701037110372103731037410375103761037710378103791038010381103821038310384103851038610387103881038910390103911039210393103941039510396103971039810399104001040110402104031040410405104061040710408104091041010411104121041310414104151041610417104181041910420104211042210423104241042510426104271042810429104301043110432104331043410435104361043710438104391044010441104421044310444104451044610447104481044910450104511045210453104541045510456104571045810459104601046110462104631046410465104661046710468104691047010471104721047310474104751047610477104781047910480104811048210483104841048510486104871048810489104901049110492104931049410495104961049710498104991050010501105021050310504105051050610507105081050910510105111051210513105141051510516105171051810519105201052110522105231052410525105261052710528105291053010531105321053310534105351053610537105381053910540105411054210543105441054510546105471054810549105501055110552105531055410555105561055710558105591056010561105621056310564105651056610567105681056910570105711057210573105741057510576105771057810579105801058110582105831058410585105861058710588105891059010591105921059310594105951059610597105981059910600106011060210603106041060510606106071060810609106101061110612106131061410615106161061710618106191062010621106221062310624106251062610627106281062910630106311063210633106341063510636106371063810639106401064110642106431064410645106461064710648106491065010651106521065310654106551065610657106581065910660106611066210663106641066510666106671066810669106701067110672106731067410675106761067710678106791068010681106821068310684106851068610687106881068910690106911069210693106941069510696106971069810699107001070110702107031070410705107061070710708107091071010711107121071310714107151071610717107181071910720107211072210723107241072510726107271072810729107301073110732107331073410735107361073710738107391074010741107421074310744107451074610747107481074910750107511075210753107541075510756107571075810759107601076110762107631076410765107661076710768107691077010771107721077310774107751077610777107781077910780107811078210783107841078510786107871078810789107901079110792107931079410795107961079710798107991080010801108021080310804108051080610807108081080910810108111081210813108141081510816108171081810819108201082110822108231082410825108261082710828108291083010831108321083310834108351083610837108381083910840108411084210843108441084510846108471084810849108501085110852108531085410855108561085710858108591086010861108621086310864108651086610867108681086910870108711087210873108741087510876108771087810879108801088110882108831088410885108861088710888108891089010891108921089310894108951089610897108981089910900109011090210903109041090510906109071090810909109101091110912109131091410915109161091710918109191092010921109221092310924109251092610927109281092910930109311093210933109341093510936109371093810939109401094110942109431094410945109461094710948109491095010951109521095310954109551095610957109581095910960109611096210963109641096510966109671096810969109701097110972109731097410975109761097710978109791098010981109821098310984109851098610987109881098910990109911099210993109941099510996109971099810999110001100111002110031100411005110061100711008110091101011011110121101311014110151101611017110181101911020110211102211023110241102511026110271102811029110301103111032110331103411035110361103711038110391104011041110421104311044110451104611047110481104911050110511105211053110541105511056110571105811059110601106111062110631106411065110661106711068110691107011071110721107311074110751107611077110781107911080110811108211083110841108511086110871108811089110901109111092110931109411095110961109711098110991110011101111021110311104111051110611107111081110911110111111111211113111141111511116111171111811119111201112111122111231112411125111261112711128111291113011131111321113311134111351113611137111381113911140111411114211143111441114511146111471114811149111501115111152111531115411155111561115711158111591116011161111621116311164111651116611167111681116911170111711117211173111741117511176111771117811179111801118111182111831118411185111861118711188111891119011191111921119311194111951119611197111981119911200112011120211203112041120511206112071120811209112101121111212112131121411215112161121711218112191122011221112221122311224112251122611227112281122911230112311123211233112341123511236112371123811239112401124111242112431124411245112461124711248112491125011251112521125311254112551125611257112581125911260112611126211263112641126511266